Industria e naftës
Gjendja e përgjithshme
According to the UNECE third Environmental Performance Review for Albania, the country owns two of the largest onshore oilfields in Europe. The largest is located in Patos-Marinza near Fier in the south-west.
The country has two refineries: Ballsh and Fier. The refineries have not developed a process of modernization and, consequently, they currently have limited capacity for oil treatment and refining. Moreover, the old, unmodernized units pose the risk of having a negative impact on the environment.
The Patos-Marinza site experienced an oil well blast event in April 2015, with a leakage of oil onto the terrain. The event resulted in the suspension of the environmental permit until sufficient measures for remediation and environmental management were put in force by the operator.
The new Draft Energy Strategy supports the exploration and production of the crude oil from the existing oil fields and new ones. The Strategy also supports the rehabilitation of Ballsh and Fier refineries to European norms and standards, including adoption of environmental norms for refinery products and technology, increasing refinery processing capacity to 1.5 Mt/year, modernization of Vlora terminal, and modernization of transport infrastructure from Vlora to Ballsh.
Ndikimet në mjedis
There are no governmental data that recognizes the direct link between the increased human health problems in the area (increased cancer cases, respiratory problems, head aches etc) and the pollution in Patos Marinza. Nonetheless the reported cases of health problems are evident.
Ndotja e ujit të pijshëm
Drilling activities and surface spilling of the oil as well as unmanaged sludge has led to increase pollution of drinking water. Most of the inhabitants in the area do use well as a mean of water supply.
Cilësia e ajrit
Air quality is a concern for local people. There is neither sludge treatment plant, nor installation of vaporizers that and address the pollution problems.
Ndotja e ujërave sipërfaqësorë dhe nëntokësorë
There are no reliable data about the pollution cause by Bankers/ oil sector in the underground water. While, nonetheless that direct measures are not done on the spots, the quality of surface waters reported in the State of Environment report shows the bad quality of water in the nearby passing rivers.
The quality and quantity of products from the agricultural activities are poor. Polluted water, dust and air pollution seems to cause regular damage to agriculture in the area.
No of employment on the area is very low. Incomes for employers/ family are extremely low if compared with the sibling ones in the EU countries. Public investments are missing totally. The damages in inhabitant’s houses due to the explosions and the frequent earthquakes are huge.
Rasti i ndotjes në zonën Patos - Marinëz
There is very little analysis available with regard to the state of development of the oil sector. The worst known one is the development of the Bankers Petroleum in the Patos – Marinza oil fields. Even though the government pretends that Bankers is one of the big contributors in GDP we will focus on the disputes and socio-environmental problems raising from the site.
An enormous eruption of natural gas and oil occurred near the village of Patos-Marinzë, in southern Albania, where the Canadian-based company Bankers Petroleum has been drilling for years. Some people got injured, homes were partially destroyed and, more importantly, many inhabitants of the area and of nearby villages have continuously reported an increasing number of diseases linked to this environmental pollution, even some cases of unexpected cancer symptoms. The unpleasant smell in the air, sludge pits, rusty scrap heaps, dusty roads and heavy lorry traffic is associated with lack of agricultural activities and extreme poverty.
Public uproar forced the Albanian government to investigate the deeds of the company, which, notwithstanding the explosions, has always claimed that the environmental pollution is an effect of previous and environmentally hostile technology, for which it is not responsible. It is a fact though that the Company received public money as grant from the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) for environmental remediation of the fields. There have been no serious technological investments, but just adjustments to increase raw material excavation, profits have been hidden and taxes evaded, there has been no expansion of the working force; on the contrary numerical diminishing, and a deterioration of the working conditions, and last, but not the least, an increase in environmental pollution.